Essential Oil Information & Individual Oil Profiles

Essential Oil Use & Safety Guidelines

Do not take essential oils internally unless you are following a cooking recipe (many herb and spice oils can be used as flavorings in minute quantities) or under the supervision of a licensed health care practitioner (with aromatherapy training).

Do not apply essential oils directly to the skin; always dilute with a carrier oil such as sweet almond, sesame and/or olive oil.

Here are the standard dilutions (as recommended by several internationally known aromatherapists) for a variety of home uses (on healthy adolescents and adults over 100 lbs):

  • Massage: use a total of 12 to 15 drops of essential oil(s) per one ounce of carrier oil. This is a 2 % dilution.
  • Bath: use 5 to 8 drops of non-irritant essential oil(s) in a teaspoon of vegetable oil and add to the water just before you enter the bath.
  • Inhalations: a drop of essential oil can be placed on a handkerchief or cotton ball and inhaled. Three to five drops may be added to a bowl of steaming water and the vapors inhaled. Be sure to close your eyes!

Keep out of the reach of children.

Avoid contact with eyes and mucous membranes.

Do not use citrus oils (or Angelica…and some references include Lavender) on the skin before exposure to UV light.

Use only pure and natural essential oils; avoid synthetic fragrances.

Do not use essential oils on infants, children, pregnant women, the elderly and/or those with serious health problems without specific aromatherapy training. There are books available that, when read and understood, can help parents make informed choices about aromatherapy use for the whole family. When in doubt: don’t use.

Should ingestion of an essential oil occur, immediately call your Poison Control Center (http://www.aapcc.org/DNN/) Do not give water if breathing or swallowing is difficult.

Do buy a reference book to help you use essential oils safely and confidently. If you have a specific question, the folks at Iris herbal are happy to assist you.


Individual Oil Profiles

Brought to you by Herbalpedia™ and the Iris Herbal Staff



Sweet Basil

Ocimum basilicum
[OSS-ih-mum bass-IL-ee-kum]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation from the flowering herb Top Note. The essential oil is used in soaps, toothpastes, mouthwashes, and perfumes. It is also a basic ingredient for the manufacture of Chartreuse-type liqueurs. Basil also helps to restore the sense of smell lost from sinus congestion. Aromatherapists massage oils scented with basil into overworked muscles and use the fragrance to decrease mental fatigue and to clear the head.

Toxicity: Though no uterine stimulant has ever been identified, given its pervasive multicultural use as a menstruation promoter and labor inducer, pregnant women should probably limit their consumption to culinary amounts. Do not use the essential oil externally or internally in pregnancy. Do not use for nephritis or acute kidney inflammation.

Oil Name: Sweet Basil. The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: volatile oil (including estragol), tannins, borneone, cineole, methylchavicol, eugenol, ocimene, pinene, sylvestrene, basil camphor; eugenol, methyl cinnamate, others depending on species. The oil is 40-45% methyl linalol, 23.8% methyl chavicol and small amounts of limonene and citronellol

Energetics: sweet, pungent, slightly bitter, very warm, dry. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a light fresh sweet-spicy and balsamic undertone. The taste is pungent. Energy is heating, neutral

Blends well with: bergamot, black pepper, lavender, marjoram, melissa, neroli, sandalwood, verbena, clary sage, lime, opopanax, oakmoss, citronella, geranium, hyssop and other ‘green’ notes, camphor, rosemary, juniper, lemon, eucalyptus, myrle, lavender, bergamot


Benzoin Absolute

Styrax benzoin
[STY-raks]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: The crude benzoin is collected from the trees directly. Benzoin resinoid, or ‘resin absolute’, is prepared from the crude using solvents, which are then removed. Commercial benzoin is usually sold dissolved in ethyl glycol or a similar solvent. A ‘true’ absolute is also produced in small quantities.

Uses: Skin Care: cuts, chapped skin, inflamed and irritated conditions Circulation, Muscles and Joints: arthritis, gout, poor circulation, rheumatism Respiratory System: asthma, bronchitis, chills, colic, cough, laryngitis
Immune System: Flu

Oil Name: Benzoin AbsoluteThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Cinnamic, benzoic and sumaresinolic acid esters, mainly coniferyl cinnamate, cinnamyl cinnamate, coniferyl benzoate accounting for up to 90%; free acids, benzoic acid 10-20%, cinnamic acid up to 30% and sumaresinolic acid; benzaldehyde, vanillin.

Properties: antiseptic, expectorant and astringent

Characteristics: Sumatra crude benzoin occurs as grayish-brown brittle lumps with reddish streaks, with a styrax-like odor. There are several different qualities available; the ‘almond’ grade is considered superior. Siam benzoin comes in pebble or tear-shaped orangebrown pieces, with a sweet-balsamic vanillalike scent, this type having a more refined odor than the Sumatra type. Benzoin resinoid is produced from either the Siam or Sumatra types, or a mix of the two. It is an orangebrown viscuous mass with an intensely rich sweet-balsamic odor. Blends well with sandalwood, rose, jasmine, copaiba balsam, frankincense, myrrh, cypress, juniper, lemon, coriander and other spice oils.


Bergamot

Bergamot

Citrus bergamia
[SIT-rus] (syn C. aurantium var bergamia)
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by cold expression of the peel of the nearly ripe fruit. A rectified or terpeneless oil is produced by vacuum distillation or solvent extraction.

Blends well with: lavender, neroli, jasmine, cypress, geranium, lemon, chamomile, juniper, coriander and violet

Actions: analgesic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, antiseptic (pulmonary, genitourinary), antispasmodic, antitoxic, carminative, digestive, diuretic, deodorant, febrifuge, laxative, parasiticide, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary

Oil Name: BergamotThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Contains a volatile oil including linalyl acetate, limonene, linalool, bergapten, a diterpene, neroli and numerous specific principles.

Description: A small evergreen tree up to 30 feet high. Has pointed oval leaves and highly scented white flowers. The round fruits, similar to oranges, are light yellow, with an acidic pulp and highly aromatic peel.

Characteristics: A light greenish-yellow liquid with a fresh sweet-fruity, slightly spicybalsamic undertone. On aging it turns a brownish-olive color.

Toxicity: Do not take bergamot essential oil internally.


White Birch

Betula lenta
[BET-yoo-luh len-tuh] (B. verrucosa, B. pendula)
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the leaf-buds; crude birch tar is extracted by slow destructive distillation from the bark; this is subsequently steam-distilled to yield a rectified birch tar oil.

Properties: diuretic, antiseptic, tonic

Parts Used: Bark, leaves

Oil Name: Sweet BirchThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Contains saponins, flavonoids, tannin, and a volatile oil that includes methyl salicylate. The buds contain a volatile oil which includes the camphor-like betulin. Young leaves are rich in saponins, a flavonoid derivative, hyperoside resin, tannins, sesquiterpenes, betuloventic acid, vintamin C. The bark contains betulinol and a glycoside.

Energetics: spicy, warm

Characteristics: pale yellow, viscous oil with a woody-green balsamic scent. It crystallizes at low temperatures; the crude tar is an almost black, thick oily mass. The rectified oil is a brownish-yellow, clear oily liquid with a smoky, tar-like, ‘Russian leather’ odor. Blends well with: other woody and balsamic oils.


Cajeput

Melaleuca leucodendron
[me-luh-LOO-kuh] or M. leucadendron
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: by steam distillation from the fresh leaves and twigs.

Blends well with: clover, eucalyptus, juniper, mint, wintergreen, angelica, bergamot, birch, cardamom, clove, geranium, immortelle, lavender, myrtle, niaouli, nutmeg, rose, rosewood, thyme

Oil Name: CajeputThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: cineol, terpineol, terpinyl acetate, pinene, nerolidol, myrcene and other traces.

Energetics:

Characteristics: Pale, yellowy-green, mobile liquid with a penetrating, camphoraceous-medicinal odor.

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-sensitizing, may irritate the skin in high concentrations.


White Camphor

Cinnamomum camphora
[sin-uh-MOH-mum kam-FOR-uh] (syn Laurus camphora. Camphora officinarum)
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Crude camphor is collected from the trees in crystalline form. The essential oil is produced by steam distillation from the wood, root stumps and branches and then rectified under vacuum and filter pressed to produce three fractions, known as white, brown and yellow camphor

Actions: anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, counter-irritant, diuretic, expectorant, vermifuge

Oil Name: White CamphorThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Contains a volatile oil comprised of camphor, safrole, eugenol, and terpineol. It also contains lignans. Camphor is irritant and antiseptic; safrole is thought to be carcinogenic. A white crystalline substance derived from the stems, root, and other parts of the tree, also called camphor, has powerful antiseptic, stimulant, and antispasmodic properties.

Energetics: spicy, bitter, warm, toxic

Characteristics: White camphor is the lightest (lowest boiling) fraction, a colorless to pale yellow liquid with a sharp, pungent camphoraceous odor. Brown camphor is the middle fraction. Yellow camphor, a blue-green or yellowish liquid, is the heaviest.

Toxicity: Contraindicated in pregnancy or low energy conditions. More than one or two gms. Can produce harmful side-effects and more than seven can prove fatal. Take only the natural plant extract internally, as the chemically prepared camphor is contaminated with other chemicals. Brown and yellow camphor are toxic and carcinogenic. Not compatible with homeopathic treatment.


Cardamom Total

Elettaria cardamomum
[el-eh-TAR-ee-uh kar-duh-MO-mum]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried ripe fruit. The plant has many medicinal uses in Indian Vedic medicine and the oil is used in perfumes and incense and claimed as an aphrodisiac in India. It can be used as a refreshing invigorating bath.

Blends well with: rose, olibanum, orange, bergamot, cinnamon, cloves, caraway, ylang ylang, labdanum, cedarwood, neroli, and oriental bases in general.

Oil Name: Cardamom TotalThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Volatile oil (terpinyl acetate, cineol, limonene, linalool, linalyl acetate, zingiberene, borneol, camphor, pinene, humulene, caryophyllene, carvone, eucalyptole, terpinene, sabinene)

Energetics: pungent, a bit bitter & sweet, warm, dry

Characteristics: From the fruit: a colorless to pale yellow liquid with a sweetspicy, warming fragrance and a woody-balsamic undertone.

Toxicity: Prolonged handling of cardamom seeds may cause contact dermatitis (itching, burning, stinging, reddened or blistered skin) or make your skin more sensitive to sunlight.


Carrot

Daucus carota
[DO-kus kar-OH-tuh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Plant/Part: Herb/Seed Note: Middle Extraction method: steam distillation from dried seeds.

Blends well with: bergamot, costus, cedarwood, cassie, geranium, juniper, lavender, lemon, lime, melissa, mimosa, neroli, orange, petitgrain, rosemary, verbena, citrus and spice oils…warm sweet odors.

Properties: anthelminutic, antiseptic, carminative, cytophylactic, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, stimulant, tonic, vasodilatory and smooth muscle relaxant, vermifuge

Oil Name: CarrotThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Essential oil contains acetic acid, carotol, caryophyllene, asarone, bisabolene, daucol, elemene, geraniol, geranyl acetate, limonene, pinene (terpenes). The cultivated carrot root contains sugars, pectin, carotene, vitamins, minerals and asparagine. Carrot leaves contain significant amounts of porphyrins, which stimulate the pituitary gland and lead to the release of increased levels of sex hormones.

Energetics: sweet, pungent, warm

Characteristics: yellow or amber colored liquid
with a warm, dry, woody-earthy odor, slightly
sweet.

Toxicity: best avoided in pregnancy as a possible abortifacient; non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing.


Atlas Cedar

Cedrus atlantica
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the wood, stumps and sawdust. A resinoid and absolute are also produced in small quantities.

Actions: (Physical): antiseptic, antiputrescent, antiseborrheic, aphrodisiac, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, fungicidal, mucolytic, sedative (nervous), stimulant (circulatory), tonic (Emotional)-calming, strengthening, rejuvenating, comforting, warming

Oil Name: Atlas CedarThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Atlantone, caryophyllene, cedrol, cadinene, thujon

Characteristics: A yellow, orange or deep amber viscous oil with a warm, camphoraceous top note and sweet tenacious, woody-balsamic undertone. It blends well with rosewood, bergamot, boronia, cypress, calamus, cassie, costus, jasmine, juniper, neroli, mimosa, labdanum, olibanum, clary sage, vetiver, rosemary, ylang ylang, oriental and floral bases.

Toxicity: Topically Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing. Best avoided during pregnancy. Because of the thujon it should not be taken orally in a high dose. It can irritate the central nervous system, cause a burning sensation in the stomach lining and severe thirst.


Himalayan Cedar

Cedrus deodara
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the wood, stumps and sawdust. A resinoid and absolute are also produced in small quantities.

Actions: (Physical): antiseptic, antiputrescent, antiseborrheic, aphrodisiac, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, fungicidal, mucolytic, sedative (nervous), stimulant (circulatory), tonic (Emotional)-calming, strengthening, rejuvenating, comforting, warming

Oil Name: Himalayan CedarThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Atlantone, caryophyllene, cedrol, cadinene, thujon

Characteristics: A yellow, orange or deep amber viscous oil with a warm, camphoraceous top note and sweet tenacious, woody-balsamic undertone. It blends well with rosewood, bergamot, boronia, cypress, calamus, cassie, costus, jasmine, juniper, neroli, mimosa, labdanum, olibanum, clary sage, vetiver, rosemary, ylang ylang, oriental and floral bases.

Toxicity: Topically Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing. Best avoided during pregnancy. Because of the thujon it should not be taken orally in a high dose. It can irritate the central nervous system, cause a burning sensation in the stomach lining and severe thirst.


German Chamomile (Blue)

Matricaria recutica
[mat-ri-KAR-ee-uh re-KOO-tee-ta]
(previously Matricaria chamomilla)
German Chamomile (Blue)
Description: Annual. This low daisy-like flower grows 2-8 inches high and has a pleasantly aromatic odor when crushed. The leaves are pinnately divided and very narrow. The flowers have yellow disk-florets and white ray-florets. The center of the flower is coneshaped. The sepal-like bracts are brownish in color. There are no chaffy scales among the disk-florets. Fruit are tiny, straw-colored seeds. Blooms June to July.

Oil Name: German Chamomile (Blue)The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Volatile oil (proazulenes, chamazulene(upon distillation), farnesine, alpha-bisabolol, spiroether); flavonids (anthemidin, luteolin, rutin, quercimertrin); bitter glycosides (anthemic acid); coumarins, tannins, plant acids (valerianic); polysaccharides, salicylate, tryptophan, amino acids.

Energetics: bitter, spicy, neutral

Characteristics: .

Toxicity: A study found the likelihood of acute allergy to chamomile quite low. Two out of 25 people already allergic to other plants in the Asteraceae family were found to be allergic to chamomile as well.


Roman Chamomile

Anthemis nobilis
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by steam distillation of the flower heads

Blends well with: bergamot, clary sage, oakmoss, jasmine, labdanum, neroli, rose, geranium and lavender

Actions: analgesic, anti-anemic, antineuralgic, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmdic, bactericidal, carminative, cholagogue, cicatrizant, digestive, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, hypnotic, nerve sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary.

Oil Name: Roman ChamomileThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Up to 1.75% volatile oil (including tiglic and angelic acid esters, chamazulene and isadol), sesquiterpene lactones, mucilage, flavone glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, and phenolic acids.

Energetics: bitter, spicy, neutral

Characteristics: A pale blue liquid (turning yellow on keeping) with a warm, sweet, fruity-herbaceous scent.

Toxicity: Cautions: Oil is a uterine stimulant, and not used in pregnancy.


Wild Chamomile/Ormensis

Ormenis multicaulis
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the flowering tops.

Toxicity: generally non-toxic and non-irritant.

Oil Name: Wild Chamomile/OrmensisThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: trans pinocarueol, borneol, bornyl acetate, bisaboline, b caryophellen, a. pinene, 1-8 cineole, yomogi alcohol, santelena alcohol and artemisia among others.

Characteristics: Pale yellow to brownishyellow mobile liquid with a fresh-herbaceous top note and a sweet rich-balsamic undertone Blends well with: cypress, lavender, lavandin, vetiver, cedarwood, oakmoss, labdanum, olibanum and artemisia oils Actions: antispasmodic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, hepatic, sedative.


Cinnamon

Cinnamomum zeylanicum
[[sin-uh-MOH-mum zey-LAN-ee-kum]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Distillation; plant part–tree, bud, bark, leaf. Cinnamon leaf essential oil is often preferred over cinnamon bark or bud as the latter two may in some cases cause a severe skin reaction, having a large proportion of cinnamic aldehyde, often the cause of skin sensitization.

Toxicity: Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and phellandrene are all allergens and irritants that may cause contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. People who are sensitive to cinnamon may develop dermatitis after using perfume, soap, mouthwash or toothpaste scented or flavored with cinnamon.

Oil Name: CinnamonThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: linalool, benzaldehyde, cinnamic, furfurol, eugenol, safrole, cymene, dipentene, phellandrene, pinene.

Characteristics: A yellow to brownish liquid with a warm-spicy, somewhat harsh odor from the leaves and twigs. A pale to dark yellow liquid with a sweet, warm-spicy, dry, tenacious odor from the dried inner bark. Best avoided in pregnancy..

Properties: Anaesthetic, antidontalgic, antiseptic, antiputrefactive, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cardiac, carminiative, emmenagogue, escharotic, haemostatic, insecticide, parasiticide, sialogogue, stimulant, stomachic, vermifuge


Citronella

Citronella

Cymbopogon nardus
[sim-buh-POH-gon-nahr-duss]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by steam distillation from the fresh and partially dried leaves, finely chopped.

Actions: Like its closely related counterpart, essential oil lemongrass, citronella is astringent and antiseptic.

Oil Name: CitronellaThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: citronellal and geraniol. Minor constituents include a mixture of camphene (camphor-like), borneol (chamomile-like) and methyleugenol (clove-like) combine to produce a peculiar aroma resembling damp, musty vegetation.

Characteristics: Citrusy (similar to lemongrass), slightly fruity, fresh, sweet..

Toxicity: May cause contact dermatitis (itching, burning, stinging, reddened or blistered skin) People who handle the plant and then expose their skin to sunlight may end up with a severe sunburn on the exposed surfaces.


Clove

Eugenia caryophyllata
[Yoo-jeen-eya cario-fill-ahta]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: The essential oil by water distillation from the buds and the leaves and by steam distillation from the stalks or stems. A concrete, absolute and oleoresin are also produced from the buds in small quantities. More than 22 lb of essence can be obtained each year from a single plant; this is the basis for the synthesis of vanilla.

Oil of cloves contains caryophyllene, an oily liquid that smells like a cross between cloves and turpentine; almond-scented furfural; vanillin, and fruity scented, peppery methlamylketone.. They are used for flavoring desserts, fruit salads, mulled wine, and liquors.

Oil Name: CloveThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Energetics: spicy, warm

Characteristics: Clove bud oil is a pale yellow liquid with a sweet-spicy odor and a fruity-fresh top note. The bud oil is favored in perfumery work. Clove leaf is a dark brown oil with a crude, burnt-woody odor. Clove stem oil is a pale yellow liquid with a strong spicywoody odor. Base note..

Adverse Effects: Contact with cloves may cause contact dermatitis. Because eugenol can be irritating to the intestinal tract, cloves are usually excluded from a bland diet. Some smokers switch to clove cigarettes, believing they’re safer than tobacco. They aren’t. Most clove cigarettes are 50-60% tobacco. And when clove burns, it releases many carcinogens. There have been many toxic reactions to clove cigarettes.


Coriander Select

Coriandrum sativum
Aromatherapy:
CO2:

Properties: carminative, stimulant, diuretic, antioxidant, flavoring agent.

Blends well with: cumin, tumeric, basil, bergamot, cypress, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, lemon, palmarosa, rosemary, sandalwood, ylang ylang, orange, ginger, ajwan, birch, anise seed, rose.

Physical: warming; loosens tight muscles; improves digestion in small amounts; improves the benefits of other oils when combined. Stimulates the circulation.

Used externally, the essential oil in Coriander has been used as a topical anti-inflammatory to ease the pain of rheumatic joints, sore muscles, neuralgia and sciatica, which appear to attest to its anti-inflammatory reputation.

Oil Name: Coriander SelectThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Coriander fruit contains about 1 per cent of volatile oil, which is the active ingredient. It is pale yellow or colorless, and has the odor of Coriander and a mild aromatic taste. .

Energetics: hot, pungent

Characteristics: Aromatic scent is hot and spicy; fresh, dry-woody; pale yellow colored liquid.

Toxicity: Essential oil of coriander can irritate the skin.


Cypress

Cupressus sempervirens
[koo-PRESS-us sem-per-VY-renz]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the needles and twigs. An oil from the cones is available occasionally. A concrete and absolute are also produced in small quantities.

Blends well with: cedarwood, pine, lavender, mandarin, clary sage, lemon, cardomon, Moroccan chamomile, ambrette seed, labdanum, juniper, benzoin, bergamot, orange, marjoram and sandalwood

Actions: antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, asterngent, deodorant, diruetic, hepatic, styptic, sudorific, tonic, vasoconstrictive

Oil Name: CypressThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: pinene, camphene, sylvestrene, cymene, sabinol among others.

Energetics: xxxx

Characteristics: essential oil by steam distillation from the needles and twigs. An oil from the cones is available occasionally. A concrete and absolute are also produced in small quantities.

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-irritant and nonsensitizing. Not to be used during the first four months of pregnancy, or with hypertensives. do not take the essential oil internally without professional supervision.


Blue Gum Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus globulus
[yoo-kuh-LIP-tus]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by steam distillation from the fresh or partially dried leaves and young twigs.

Blends well with: thyme, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, pine, cedarwood and lemon

Uses: Skin Care: burns, blisters, cuts herpes, insect bites, insect repellant, lice, skin infections, wounds

Oil Name: Blue Gum EucalyptusThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: essential oil with cineole, pinene, limonene, cymene, phellandrene, terpinene, aromadendrene, ellagic and gallic acid, biter principle, resin, tannin.

Energetics: spicy, warm

Characteristics: A colorless mobile liquid (yellow on aging), with a somewhat harsh camphoraceous odor and woody-scent undertones.

Toxicity: Eucalyptus oil should be used infrequently since it is difficult to eliminate through the kidneys. Contraindicated for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding as well as anyone suffering from low blood sugar. Commission E says it is also contraindicated for persons suffering from inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and bile ducts, as well as severe liver disease.


Lemon Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus citriodora
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Steam distillation of leaves and twigs

Properties: analgesic, calming, antiseptic, insecticide, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal

Uses: fungal and infective skin conditions, respiratory problems, arthritis, shingles, high blood pressure

Blends well with: other eucalypti, thyme, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, pine, cedar, lemon, other citrus oils

Oil Name: Lemon EucalyptusThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: primarily citronellal with citronellol, geraniol, pinene

Energetics: cooling and calming

Characteristics: clear to pale yellow, with a strong citrus-camphoraceous scent

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-irritant in dilution; possible sensitization in some individuals. Toxic when taken internally.


Peppermint Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus dives
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Steam distillation of leaves and twigs

Properties: analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, decongestant, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant

Uses: arthritis, muscular aches and pains, respiratory problems (especially where an expectorant is needed), vaginal discharge, deodorant

Blends well with: other eucalypti, thyme, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, pine, cedar, lemon, peppermint

Oil Name: Peppermint EucalyptusThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: piperitone, phellandrene, camphene, cymene, terpenine, linalool

Energetics: cooling and releasing

Characteristics: clear to pale yellow, with a camphoraceous-minty aroma

Toxicity: not to be used by children or pregnant women; otherwise, fairly non-toxic, non-irritant in dilution. Toxic if taken internally.


Narrow Leaf Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus radiata
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Steam distillation of leaves and twigs

Properties: antiseptic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory

Uses: good for all respiratory issues, especially when viral in origin; vaginitis, wounds, acne, sinus infections

Blends well with: other eucalypti, thyme, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, pine, cedar, lemon, peppermint, tea tree

Oil Name: Narrow Leaf EucalyptusThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: cineole, alpha-terpineol, geraniol, phellandrene, piperitone, piperitol

Energetics: cooling and protecting

Characteristics: usually clear with a penetrating, medium-strength camphoraceous aroma

Toxicity: : non-toxic, non-irritant in dilution and usually non-sensitizing. Toxic when taken internally. Not recommended for use on small children.


Eucalyptus, Gully Gum

Eucalyptus smithii
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Steam distillation of leaves and twigs

Properties: anti-infective, expectorant, stimulating, analgesic, immune modulant

Uses: muscle pain, ear-nose-and throat problems

Blends well with: other eucalypti, thyme, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, pine, cedar, lemon, peppermint, tea tree

Oil Name: Eucalyptus, Gully GumThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: cineole, alpha pinene

Energetics: cooling, energizing and protective

Characteristics: usually clear with a soft, gentle camphoraceous scent

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing. Generally safe for children if properly diluted. Toxic if taken internally.


Sweet Fennel Select

Foeniculum vulgare
[fen-IK-yoo-lum vul-GAY-ree]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation of seeds.

Essential is colorless and has a very sweet and somewhat warm, anise like aroma; slightly earthy or peppery-spicy with a clean, sweet aromatic dryout, a hint of fruityfresh top note.

Blends well with: anise, caraway, lavender, chamomile, angelica, cardamom, clove, orange, ginger, geranium, rose, sandalwood, basil, lemon, rosemary

Oil Name: Sweet Fennel SelectThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Energetics: pungent, warm, dry, sweet

Cautions: Ingestion of the essential oil may induce nausea, vomiting, seizures and pulmonary edema. The principal hazards with fennel itself are photodermatitis and contact dermatitis. Some individuals exhibit crossreactivity to several species of Apiaceae. Rare allergic reactions have been reported following the ingestion of fennel.


Balsam Fir

Abies balsamea
[A-bees ball-sa-MEE-uh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: the oleoresin is collected by puncturing vesicles in the bark. An essential oil is produced by steam distillation from the oleoresin, known as Canada balsam or Canada turpentine. An essential oil is also produced by steam distillation from the leaf or needles, known as fir needle oil.

Blends well with: pine, cedarwood, cypress, sandalwood, juniper, benzoin and other balsams

Oil Name: Balsam FirThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: consists almost entirely of monoterpenes, pinene, phellandrene, esters and alcohols.

Characteristics: The oleoresin is a thick pale yellow or green honey-like mass, which dries to crystal clear varnish, with a fresh sweet-balsamic, almost fruity odor. The oil is a colorless mobile liquid with a sweet, softbalsamic, pine-like scent.

Toxicity: The oil is generally non-toxic, nonirritant, non-sensitizing.


Douglas Fir

Pseudotsuga menziesii
[SOO-doh SOO-guh menz-ESS-ee-eye]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Steam distillation of needles

Properties: antiseptic, antiviral, expectorant, stimulant, germicide

Uses: respiratory problems, circulatory tonic, freshens and disinfects air

Oil Name: Douglas FirThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: beta-alpha-pinene, terpinolene, limonene, delta-3-carene, citronellyl acetate, camphor, geraniol, b-phellandrene

Energetics: warming and protecting

Characteristics: warming and protecting

Toxicity: generally non-toxic, non-irritant (in dilution)


Silver Fir

Abies alba
[A-bees AL-buh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential by steam distillation from the needles and young twigs and fir cones, broken up pieces (templin oil)

Actions: analgesic, antiseptic (pulmonary), antitussive, deodorant, expectorant, rubefacient, stimulant, tonic.

Uses: Circulation, Muscles and Joints: arthritis, muscular aches and pains, rheumatism

Oil Name: Silver FirThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: santene, pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate, lauraldehyde among others. The templin oil: pinene, limonene, borneol, bornyl acetate, among others

Characteristics: a colorless or pale yellow liquid of pleasing, rich, sweety-balsamic odor. The templin oil is similar to the needle oil, but with a more orange-like fragrance

Toxicity: The oil is non-toxic, non-irritant except in high concentration and nonsensitizing.


Frankincense

Boswellia carteri
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by steam distillation from selected oleo gum resin. An absolute is also produced, for use mainly as a fixative.

Blends well with: sandalwood, pine, vetiver, geranium, jasmine, labdanum, lavender, lemon, mimosa, musk, myrrh, neroli, orange, patchouli, pine, rose, rosewood, violet, ylangylang, bergamot, camphor, basil, pepper, cinnamon and other spices. It modifies the sweetness of citrus blends in an intriguing way.

Oil Name: FrankincenseThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Mainly monoterpene hydrocarbons, notably pinene, dipentene, limonene, thujone, phellandrene, cymene, myrcene, terpinene; also octyl acetate, octanol, incensole among others

Energetics: spicy, bitter, warm

Characteristics: a pale yellow or greenish mobile liquid with a fresh, terpeney top note and a warm, rich, sweet-balsamic undertone. Taste: bitter, pungent, astringent, sweet; energy: heating, drying;

Dosha affect: K V-, P+; planet: Sun – Note: middle to base


Geranium

Pelargonium graveolens
[pe-lar-GO-nee-um]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves, stalks and flowers of geranium.

Oil Name: GeraniumThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: citronellol, gernaiol, linalol, isomenthone, menthone, phellandrene, sabinene, limonene.

Characteristics: The Bourbon oil is a greenisholive liquid with a rosy-sweet, minty scent, preferred in perfumery work; middle note.


Rose Geranium

Pelargonium graveolens
[pe-lar-GO-nee-um]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves, stalks and flowers of rose geranium. An absolute and concrete are also produced in Morocoo.

Oil Name: Rose GeraniumThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: citronellol, gernaiol, linalol, isomenthone, menthone, phellandrene, sabinene, limonene.

Characteristics: The Bourbon oil is a greenisholive liquid with a rosy-sweet, minty scent, preferred in perfumery work; middle note.


Ginger

Zingiber officianalis
[zing-ee-ber oh-fiss-ih-NAH-lee]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation of the unpeeled, dried rhizome.

Color and odor: yellow in color; warm but fresh, woody, spicy with a peculiar resemblance to orange, lemon, lemongrass, coriander weed oil in the initial, fresh topnotes; the undertone is sweet, heavy, rich, tenacious, almost balsamic floral

Blends well with: black pepper, eucalyptus, juniper, cypress, rose, cedarwood, coriander, all citrus, neroli, sandalwood, vetiver, patchouli, frankincense, rosewood, bay, cajeput, cinnamon, clove, geranium, myrtle, nutmeg, rosemary, peppermint, tea tree, thyme.

Oil Name: GingerThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Contains proteins, cellulose, starch, minerals, a fixed oil with gingerol, a bitter resin and 1-3 per cent volatile oil. Nineteen substances have been isolated from the essential oil including zingiberene, bisabolene, zingiberol, zingiberenol, curcumene, borneol, methlheptenone, phellandrene, camphene, norneol, cineol, linalool, citral, cumene, pinene and cymene. Fresh ginger contains 80% water, while dry ginger has up to 10% moisture. The pungent principles of ginger are ginerols, shogoals and zingerone, in that order of pungency.

Energetics: pungent, sweet; warming/drying

Cautions: For oil: don’t use if inflammatory skin diseases, high fever, bleeding or ulcers are present. Avoid excessive amounts of ginger if the stomach is already hot and over-stimulated, as in peptic ulceration.


Ruby Red Grapefruit

Citrus paradisi
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by cold expression from the fresh peel.

Blends well with: basil, bergamot, cardamom, cedarwood, chamomile, citronella, cypress, frankincense, geranium, jasmine, lavender, lemon, neroli, palmarosa, rose, rosemary, rosewood, ylang ylang and other spice oils.

Oil Name: Ruby Red Grapefruit. The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: geraniol, linalool, citral (aldehyde), Limonene (90%), Pinene (Terpenes), cadinene, paradisiol, neral, citronellal, sinensal, abinene, myrcene, decyl acetate, neryl acetate, as well as esters, coumarins and furocoumarins.

Energetics: warming/drying

Characteristics: a yellow or greenish mobile liquid with a fresh, sweet citrus aroma.

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-irritant, nonsensitizing, non-phototoxic. Short self life, oxidizes quickly.


Helichrysum/Immortelle

Helichrysum italicum
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: (1) Essential oil by steam distillation from the fresh flowers and flowering tops. (2) An absolute (and concrete) are also produced by solvent extraction.

Blends well with: Rose, Patchouli, Sandalwood, Sweet Marjoram, Vetiver and Lavender.

Oil Name: Helichrysum/Immortelle. The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: nerol and neryl acetate, geraniol, pinene, linalol, isovaleric aldehyde, sesquiterpenes, furfurol and eugenol.

Energetics: Warm, earthy, bittersweet, rich aroma with spicy and fruity notes

Characteristics: (1) a pale yellow to red oily liquid with a powerful, rich honey-like scent with a delicate tea-like undertone. (2) A yellowy brown viscous liquid with a rich, floral, tea-like scent.

Toxicity: Non-toxic, non-irritant, nonsensitizing.


Creeping Hyssop

Hyssopus decumbens
[hiss-OP-us]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Steam distillation from leaves and flowering tops.

Blends well with: lavender, rosemary, myrtle, bay leaf, sage, clary sage, geranium, eucalyptus, myrtle, camphor, juniper, cajeput, laurel and citrus oils.

Uses: For skin: bruises, cuts, dermatitis, eczema, inflammation, wounds Circulation, Muscles and Joints: low or high blood pressure, rheumatism

Oil Name: Creeping HyssopThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: pinocamphone, isopinocamphone, estragole, borneol, geraniol, limonene, thujone, camphene, pinocampheol, cineole, linalool, terpineol, myrcene, caryophyllene, flavonoids (hyssopin), tannin (5-8%); organic acid; bitter lactones (marrubiin, ursolic acid).

Energetics: a colorless to pale yellowy-green liquid with a sweet, camphoraceous top note and warm spicyherbaceous undertone.

Characteristics: Herbaceous, camphoraceous, warm, sweet & slightly spicy.

Toxicity: Use only in small doses medicinally. Pregnant women and people with high blood pressure should avoid it. Epileptics should not use the essential oil at all.


Jasmine Absolute

Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum
[JAZ-mih-num oh-fiss-ih-NAH-lee]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: solvent extract

Properties: anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, sedative, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, uterine antiseptic, galactagogue

Uses: labor pains, depression, bronchial spasms, laryngitis, pelvic congestion, nervous exhaustion, dry, sensitive and mature skin, muscular aches and pains

Blends well with: other florals (especially rose), sandalwood, clary sage, oakmoss, citrus oils, frankincense, geranium, palmarosa, rosewood

Oil Name: Jasmine AbsoluteThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: benzyl acetate, linalool, linalyl acetate, farnesol, benzyl alcohol, cis-jasmone, geraniol, nerol, indole, terpineol, methyl anthranilate, eugenol, phenyl acetic acid, methyl jasmonate

Energetics: soothing and restoring

Characteristics: golden yellow brown to deep orange-brown viscous liquid with an intensely sweet, flowery, rich, scent with musky, tea, fruity and heady undertones

Toxicity: do not use if pregnant until about to begin birth; otherwise, non-toxic, non-irritant and generally non-sensitizing. Some individuals may be allergic. Low doses are recommended due to the intensity of the aroma.


Juniper

Juniperus communis
[jew-NIP-er-us KOM-yoo-nis]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by stem distillation from the berries and the needles and wood. A resinoid, concrete and absolute are also produced on a small scale.

Blends well with: vetiver, sandalwood, cedarwood, mastic, oakmoss, galbanum, elemi, cypress, clary sage, pine, lavender, lavandin, labdanum, fir needle, rosemary, benzoin, balsam tolu, geranium and citrus oils

Oil Name: JuniperThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: 0.5-2.0% of a volatile essential oil including terpenes (mainly monoterpenes: pinene, myrcene, sabinene with limonene, cymene, terpinene, thujene and camphene); 10% resin; 30% invert sugars, some salts, wax, gum, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, podophyllotoxin (an anti-tumor agent), vitamin C and phytonicides. The bitter principle is juniperin. Chemically similar to turpentine and Australian tea tree oil. Very high in chromium. High in tin, protein and cobalt.

Characteristics: a water-white or pale yellow mobile liquid with a sweet, fresh, woody-balsamic odor.

Toxicity: Juniper may irritate the kidneys in long-term use, so do not take internally for more than six weeks without a break, or at all if there is already kidney damage. Other adverse effects are generally of an allergic nature. Contraindicated during pregnancy.


Laurel

Laurus nobilis
[law-russ no-BIL-iss]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation of dried leaves and berries.

Blends well with: bergamot, atlas or Virginian cedarwood, eucalyptus, fennel, ginger, juniper, lavender, lemon, sweet or Spanish marjoram, orange, patchouli, rose, rosemary, thyme, ylang-ylang, clary sage, labdanum

Oil Name: LaurelThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: essential oils are geraniol, eucalyptol, cineol, pinene, eugenol, terpenes; tannic acid; bitters; berries contain glyceryl laurate and essential oil similar to leaves.

Energetics: spicy, warm

Characteristics: a greenish-yellow liquid with a powerful, spicy-medicinal odor, somewhat resembling cloves or cinnamon.


Lavender, Super (High Altitude)

Lavandula angustifolia
[lav-AN-dew-lah an-gus-tee-FOH-lee-uh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the fresh flowering tops. An absolute and concrete are also produced by solvent extraction.

Characteristics: Colorless to pale yellow liquid with a sweet, floral-herbaceous scent and balsamic-woody undertone.

Oil Name: Super Lavender (High Altitude). The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Over 100. Lavender has 0.5- 1/5% volatile oil, tannins, coumarins (including coumarin, umbelliferone and herniarin), flavonoids (such as luteolin), and (in the leaves) about 0.7% ursolic acid. The essential oil has linalyl acetate (8-18% in English lavender, 30-60% in French lavender), linalool, 1,8-cineole, camphor, pinene, geraniol and its esters, lavandulol, nerol, cineole, caryophyllene, limonene, furfural, ethyl amyl ketone, thujone, and pinocamphone. Linalool has the distinct smell of lavender. The sweetly floral English lavender has little camphor compared to other lavenders, which accordingly have a medicinal or detergent-like smell. High altitudes generally produce more esters.

Energetics: slightly cooling/neutral


Lavender Mailette

Lavandula angustifolia var. mailette
[lav-AN-dew-lah an-gus-tee-FOH-lee-uh vahr may-let]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation of the flowering tops

Properties: analgesic, calming, antiseptic, cell rejuvenating, antidepressant, antispasmodic, liver tonic, deodorant, diuretic, emmenagogue, hypotensive, sedative tonic to the nervous system

Uses: asthma, headache, insomnia, lung infections, stress relief, cuts and bruises, PMS, menstrual cramps, muscular pain, high blood pressure, fatigue, depression, sunburn, all skin types and issues, digestive problems

Blends well with: citrus oils, floral oils, roman chamomile, clary sage, rose geranium, cedar, clove, pine, labdanum, oakmoss, vetiver, patchouli

Oil Name: Lavender MailetteThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: linalyl-acetate, linalol, beta-caryophyllene, cineol, lavandulol, lavandulyl acetate, terpineol, cineol, limonene, ocimene

Energetics: cooling, calming and balancing

Characteristics: clear to slightly pale yellow with a floral, herbaceous, fresh, soft, sweet velvety scent

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing. Some authorities recommend not using during the first trimester of pregnancy.


Spike Lavender

Lavandula latifolia
[lav-AN-dew-lah Lah-tee FOH-lee-uh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation of flowering tops

Properties: antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-infective, analgesic, carminative, diuretic, circulatory regulator, nerve calmer

Uses: sinus infection, bronchitis, wounds, dyspepsia, headaches, rheumatic pain and arthritis

Blends well with: lavender, sage, eucalyptus, pine, Atlas cedar, oak moss, petitgrain, patchouli and spice oils

Oil Name: Spike LavenderThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: cineole, camphor, linalol, d-camphene, linalyl acetate, d-borneol

Energetics: cooling, detoxifying and regenerating

Characteristics: clear to pale yellow with a fresh herbaceous, camphoraceous scent

Toxicity: generally non-toxic, non-irritant in dilution; non-sensitizing; not for use on small children and avoid during the first 3 to 4 months of pregnancy.


Lemon

Citrus limon
[SIT-rus LEE-mon]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by cold expression from the outer part of the fresh peel. A terpeneless oil is also produced on a large scale.

Blends well with: lavender, neroli, ylang ylang, rose, sandalwood, olibanum, chamomile, benzoin, fennel, geranium, eucalyptus, juniper, oakmoss, lavandin, elemi, labdanum and other citrus oils

Actions: anti-anemic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antisclerotic, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrizant, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hemostatic, hypotensive, insecticidal, rubefacient, stimulates white corpuscles, tonic, vermifuge

Oil Name: LemonThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Fruit (Fresh weight): Water: 90 Calories: 28 Protein: 0.8 Fat: 0.5 Carbohydrate: 8.2 Fiber: 0.6 Ash: 5.4 Calcium: 33 Phosphorus: 15 Iron: 0.5 Sodium: 3 Potassium: 137 Vitamin A: 12 Thiamine: 0.5 Riboflavin: 0.01999 Niacin: 0.1 Vitamin C: 52 . The oil: limonene, terpinene, pinenes, sabinene, myrcene, citral, linalool, geraniol, octanol, nonanol, citronellal, bergamotene (which sensitizes the skin to sunlight and is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotes pigmentation in the skin, though it can cause dermatitis or allergic responses in some people).

Characteristics: A pale greeny-yellow liquid (turning brown with age), with a light, fresh, citrus scent.


Lemongrass

Cymbopogon citratus
[sim-buh-POH-gon sit-TRAY-tus]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the fresh and partially dried leaves, finely chopped.

Actions: analgesic, antidepressant, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antipyretic, antiseptic, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, deodorant, febrifuge, fungicidal, galactagogue, insecticidal, nervine, sedative (nervous), tonic.

Oil Name: LemongrassThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: essential oil includes citral (65- 85%), dipentene, methylheptenone, linalol, geraniol, geraniol, linalool, geranyl acetate, farnesol, nerol, citronellol, myrcene (12-25%).

Characteristics: A yellow, amber or reddish-brown liquid with a fresh, grassy-citrus scent and an earthy undertone. A yellow or amber liquid with a fresh, grassy-lemony scent, generally lighter than the West Indian type. Taste: pungent, bitter; Energy: cooling/moisturizing; Dosha effect: P K-, Vo; Note: top.

Toxicity: Prolonged handling of lemongrass may cause contact dermatitis (itching, burning, stinging, reddened or blistered skin) People who handle the plant and then expose their skin to sunlight may end up with a severe sunburn on the exposed surfaces.


Lime (cold pressed)

Citrus aurantifolia
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Cold-pressed from the peel of unripe fruit

Properties: antiseptic, antiviral, febrifuge, anti-rheumatic, astringent, tonic, restorative

Uses: Many skin conditions, arthritis, poor circulation, respiratory problems, digestive issues, and a general tonic

Blends well with: other citrus oils, neroli, citronella, lavender, rosemary and clary sage

Oil Name: Lime (cold pressed)The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: limonene, pinenes, camphene, sabinene, citral, cymene, cineole, linalool, (peel contains coumarins), terpeneol, linalyl acetate, bergaptene

Energetics: cooling, refreshing, uplifting

Characteristics: yellow to olive green with a strong, sharp, tart, spicy-citrus aroma

Toxicity: non-toxic, possible irritant if not used in dilution, non-sensitizing. The peel essential oil may cause photo-sensitivity in the presence of sunlight; the distilled essential is not very photosensitizing.


Lime (distilled)

Citrus aurantifolia
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Steam distilled of whole ripe crushed fruit

Properties: antiseptic, antiviral, febrifuge, anti-rheumatic, astringent, tonic, restorative

Uses: Many skin conditions, arthritis, poor circulation, respiratory problems, digestive issues, and a general tonic

Blends well with: other citrus oils, neroli, citronella, lavender, rosemary and clary sage

Oil Name: Lime (distilled)The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: limonene, pinenes, camphene, sabinene, citral, cymene, cineole, linalool, (peel contains coumarins), terpeneol, linalyl acetate, bergaptene

Energetics: cooling, refreshing, uplifting

Characteristics: clear to pale yellow with a fresh, fruity-citrus aroma

Toxicity: non-toxic, possible irritant if not used in dilution, non-sensitizing. The peel essential oil may cause photo-sensitivity in the presence of sunlight; the distilled essential is not very photosensitizing.


Red Mandarin

Citrus reticulata
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Cold expression of the ripe outer peel.

Properties: sedative (helps regulate the sympathetic nervous system), stimulant (digestive and lymphatic systems), antiseptic, antispasmodic, mild diuretic, liver tonic

Uses: insomnia, anxiety, digestive issues, fluid retention, intestinal problems, congested and oily skin; excellent for children and pregnant women.

Blends well with; other citrus oils, spice oils, basil, chamomile, lavender, marjoram, palmarosa, petitgrain, rose, lemongrass

Oil Name: Red MandarinThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: limonene, benzyl acetate, N-methyl anthranol acid, citral, geraniol, citronellal

Energetics: calming and tonifying

Characteristics: yellowy-orange with a very sweet, warm, tangy, floral citrus scent

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-irritant (some experts would add “only in dilution”), non-sensitizing. Most sources say photo-sensitizing.


Sweet Marjoram

Marjorana hortensis
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation. Yield is very low, often less than 1% of the fresh material.

Blends well with: lavender, bergamot, mandarin, orange, nutmeg, rosewood, ylang ylang, rosemary, bergamot, chamomile, cypress, cedarwood, tea tree and eucalyptus

Oil Name: Sweet MarjoramThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: essential oil includes terpenes; cis- and trans-sabinese hydrate; flavonoids; linalool; terpineol, carvocrol, linalyl acetate, ocimene, cadinene, geranyl acetate, citral, eugenol.

Energetics: spicy, warm

Characteristics: The oil is yellowish, with a spicy, aromatic quality, reminiscent of lavender. The taste is sharp and spicy. The oleoresin is dark-green and viscous. Middle note.


Wild Marjoram

Thymus mastichina
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Distilled from leaves of the mastichina species of Thyme (chemotype cineole)

Properties: expectorant, decongestant, antibacterial, antiviral

Blends well with: other thymes, rosemary, lavender, pine, eucalyptus, tea tree, peppermint

Oil Name: Wild MarjoramThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: cineole, d-alpha pinene, isovalerian acid, linalool

Energetics: stimulating and strengthening

Characteristics: clear with a camphoraceous, herbaceous, penetrating scent

Toxicity: do not use if pregnant, or on small children. When well-diluted is usually non-toxic and non-irritant.


Myrrh

Commiphora myrrah
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: resinoid (and resin absolute) by solvent extraction of the crude myrrh; essential oil by steam distillation of the crude myrrh

Actions: alterative, analgesic, emmenagogue, rejuvenative, astringent, expectorant, antispasmodic, antiseptic, stimulant, antiinflammatory, carminative.

Blends well with: frankincense, benzoin, clove, galbanum, lavender, sandalwood, orange, tangerine, juniper, cypress, geranium, musk, pine, patchouli and heavy flower oils

Oil Name: MyrrhThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: The composition is very complex and only partially known. 40-60% is soluble in ethanol and comprises a very inadequately known resin and an essential oil which has been studied in some detail and found to consist almost entirely of sesquiterpenes. The main components are furanosesquiterpenes of the germacrane, elemane, eudesmane, and guaiane types. In addition, there are sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and sesquiterpene alchohols; heerabolene, limonene, dipentene, pinene, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, cadinene.

Energetics: Hot, dry, acrid bitter

Characteristics: The resinoid is a dark reddish-brown viscous mass, with a warmspicy, showing a very peculiar sharp-balsamic, slightly medicinal topnote; the sweetness increases to a deep, warm-spicy and aromatic dryout. The essential oil is a pale yellow to amber oily liquid with a warm, sweet-balsamic, slightly spicy-medicinal odor.


Myrtle

Myrtus communis
[MER-tus KOM-yoo-nis]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves and flowering tips of the branches and occasionally the flowers. Known as Eau d’Agnes.

Actions: anticatarrhal, antiseptic, astringent, balsamic, bactericidal, expectorant, regulator, parasiticide, slightly sedative

Oil Name: Myrtle. The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: cineol (ketone), alphapinene, myrtenol, pinene (terpenes), geraniol, linalool, camphene, nerol (alcohols), Myrtenal (Aldehyde), dipentene, tannins

Energetics: Mercury essence, yang with strong yin

Characteristics: a pale yellow or orange liquid with a clear, fresh, camphoraceous, sweetherbaceous scent somewhat similar to eucalyptus.


Neroli (Orange Blossom)

Citrus aurantium var. amara
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation, sometimes extracted with solvents from fresh flowers. About 1,000 pounds of blossoms yield 1 pound of essential oil. The finest neroli otto is obtained from orange flowers, by distillation and by maceration and is known as “neroli pétale”. “Neroli bigarade” is obtained from flowers of the Seville or bitter orange. The essence essence or esprit is obtained by “washing” 2 oz of pomade with 4 pints of rectified spirit. Mixed with elder flower or rose water, it is an effective astringent, closing large pores almost at once.

Oil Name: Neroli (Orange Blossom)The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: 40-80% Esters: mainly linalyl acetate and geranyl acetate, as well as linalol, nerol, terpineol, geraniol, nerolidol, farnesol, limonene, among others.

Energetics: cooling /moisturizing / sweet / bitter

Characteristics: the oil is a pale yellow mobile liquid darkening with age with a light, sweetfloral fragrance and terpencey topnote. The absolute is a dark brown or orange viscous liquid with a fresh delicate yet rich, warm
sweet-floral fragrance.

Toxicity: Oranges may aggravate arthritis.


Niaouli

Melaleuca quinquenervia
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation of leaves

Properties: anti-allergic, anti-infectious (antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal), anti-inflammatory, astringent, hormone-like action on the HPA systems as well as the adrenal and genitor-urinary systems, expectorant, immune stimulant

Uses: allergies, hemorrhoids, flu prevention, gum disease, muscular aches and pains, respiratory problems, genital herpes, skin lesions, vaginal problems, cystitis, prostate problems

Blends well with: tea tree, cajeput, clary sage, rosemary, oakmoss, pine, geranium, marjoram, clove and nutmeg

Oil Name: True Niaouli (MQV)The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: terpene hydrocarbons, terpene alcohols, sesquiterpene alcohols, terpene oxide

Energetics: protecting and strengthening

Characteristics: clear oil with a woody, herbaceous, slightly camphoraceous scent

Toxicity: because of its hormone-like effects, do not use on children less than 10 years old, or if pregnant. Otherwise, non-toxic, usually non-irritant (some people may be sensitive and require greater dilutions).


Bitter Orange

Citrus aurantium
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Cold expression of the outer peel of almost ripe fruit

Properties: sedative, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-coagulant, astringent, digestive

Uses: nervousness, anxiety, dizziness, digestive issues, circulatory and venous tonic

Oil Name: Bitter OrangeThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: limonene, terpinolene, d-alpha-terpineol, myrcene, camphene, pinene, cymene, linalool, geraniol, citronellol, nerolidol, farnesol

Energetics: tonifying and soothing

Characteristics: dark yellow with a hint of brown, and a citrus aroma with rich, sweet, dry tones

Toxicity: photo-sensitizing; otherwise, generally non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing. Some individuals may experience contact dermatitis; best use well-diluted.


Sweet Orange

Citrus sinensis
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method:

Oil Name: Sweet OrangeThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: aegloside, camphene, limonene, linaloolacetate, two flavonone glycosides, poncirin and naringin occur in leaves, flowers and fruit peel. Pectin may be abundant.

Energetics: cooling / moisturizing / sweet

Characteristics: a pale yellow to amber liquid with a fresh-floral citrus scent and a woody herbacious undertone.

Toxicity: Oranges may aggravate arthritis.


Oregano

Origanum vulgare. chemotype carvacrol
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam
distillation from the dried flowering herb.

Properties: Expectorant, antiinflammatory, antiseptic of the respiratory system; emenagogue; vulnerary; stimulant, diaphoretic, rubefacient, antispasmodic, calmative, stomachic, carminative, tonic.

Uses: As a fragrance component in soaps, colognes and perfumes, especially men’s fragrances. Employed to some extent as a flavoring agent, mainly in meat products and pizzas. A red or purple dye is obtained from the flowering tops, it is neither brilliant nor durable. The plant repels ants.

The primary ingredients in Oregano are thymol and carvacrol, which are also found in thyme. These compounds, researchers have found, help loosen phlegm in the lungs and relieve spasms in the bronchial passages. Many commercial cough remedies, including cough drops and skin rubs such as Vicks VapoRub, contain thymol.

The flowering tops yield a reddish-brown dye and before the introduction of hops they were used in brewing. Wooden furniture was traditionally rubbed with the leaves to impart a pleasant fragrance.

Oil Name: OreganoThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: The essential oil (max. 4%) may contain variable amounts of the two phenoles carvacrol and thymol; furthermore, a variety of monoterpene hydrocarbons (limonene, terpinene, ocimene, caryophyllene, ß- bisabolene and p-cymene) and monoterpene alcohols (linalool, 4-terpineol) are reported.
Acids: Rosmarinic ( Plant and leaves) palmitic, estearic, oleic, ursolic, caffeic, capric ( Plant ); Essential oil rich in thymol ,cineole, carvacrol, borneol, beta-bisolobene, limonene, alphapinene, beta- pinene, myrcene, camphene,
alpha- terpinene (Plant); Minerals: Potassium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper ( Plant); Tannins (Plant); Vitamins : Niacine, betacatotene (Plant)

Energetics: warm and spicy

Characteristics: a pale yellow liquid
(browning with age), with a warm, spicyherbaceous,
camphoraceous odor.

Toxicity: Do not take as a medicine during pregnancy. External use may cause irritation of the skin. Do not take essential oil internally. The oil is a dermal toxin, skin irritant, mucous membrane irritant.


Palmarosa

Cymbopogon martinii var. motia
[sim-buh-POH-gon]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by steam or
water distillation of the fresh or dried grass.

Blends well with: cananga, geranium,
bergamot, citronella, jasmine, lavender, lime,
melissa, orange, petitgrain, rose, violet, ylang ylang, oakmoss, rosewood, amyris, sandalwood, guaiacwood, cedarwood and other floral oils.

Oil Name: PalmarosaThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Mainly geraniol; also farnesol, geranyl acetate, ethylheptenone,
citronellol, citral, dipentene and limonene.

Characteristics: a pale yellow or olive liquid with a sweet, floral, rosy, geranium-like scent.

Toxicity: Non-toxic, non-irritant, nonsensitizing.


Palo Santo

Bursera graveolens
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Distilled from the branches (gum and resin) of already fallen/dead wood

Properties: antiviral, antibacterial, antispasmodic, decongestant, expectorant, sedative, anti-tumor

Uses: skin issues, respiratory problems, anxiety and panic attacks, headaches and migraine, muscle and joint pain, meditation aid

Blends well with: frankincense, sandalwood, myrrh, neroli

Oil Name: Palo SantoThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: limonene, alpha-pinene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes

Energetics: grounding and protecting

Characteristics: pale yellow with a warm, woody, herbal, minty, fruity scent

Toxicity: no safety issues known


Patchouli

Pogostemon patchouli
[po-go-STEE-mon]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: by steam distillation of the
dried leaves (usually subjected to fermentation
previously.) A resinoid is also produced,
mainly as a fixative. The leaves, cut every few
months, attain their highest oil content in the
three pairs of newest leaves. Cutting is therefore aimed at a growth of 5 pairs, as the essential oil content of larger leaves is negligible.

Oil Name: PatchouliThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Patchoulol (Alcohol—40%), Benzoic, Cinnamic (Aldehydes), Eugenol (Phenol), Cadinene (Sesquiterpene); pogostol, bulnesol, nor patchoulenol, bulnese, patchoulene, methylchavicol, anethole, anisaldehyde, limonene, pinene, pmethoxycinnamaldehyde, a-pinene, among others.

Energetics: spicy, slightly warm

Characteristics: an amber or dark orange viscous liquid with a sweet, rich, herbaceousearthy odor—it improves with age.

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-irritant, nonsensitizing.


Black Pepper

Piper nigrum
[PIP-er NY-grum]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation from the
black peppercorns.

Properties: carminative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic.

Blends well with: basil, bergamot, cypress, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, lemon, palmarosa, rosemary, sandalwood, ylang ylang, orange, ginger, ajwan, birch, anise seed, rose.

Physical: warming; loosens tight muscles; improves digestion in small amounts; improves the benefits of other oils when combined. Stimulates the circulation

Oil Name: Black PepperThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Pepper yields 1-3 percent of a volatile oil which is aromatic though not pungent. The pungency derives from the alkaloids – piperine, piperidine, piperethine and chavian. Also: eugenol, myristicin, safrole (Phenol), Bisabolene, Camphene, Farnesene, Limonene, Myrcene, Phellandrene, Pinene, Sabinene, Selinene, Thujene (Terpenes), Caryophyllene (Sesquiterpene); Cubeb pepper contains cubebin in place of piperine.

Energetics: hot, pungent

Characteristics: Scent is hot and spicy; fresh, dry-woody; color is a water-white
to pale olive mobile liquid.

Toxicity: Essential oil of black pepper can irritate the skin.


Peppermint

Mentha piperita
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam
distillation from the flowering herb

Blends well with: benzoin, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, lemon, eucalyptus and other mints.

Actions: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiphlogistic, antipruritic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholaglgue, cordial, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hepatic, nervine, stomachic, sudorific, vasoconstrictor, vermifuge.

Use: Use peppermint scent to increase concentration, to stimulate mind and body and to stay awake. Externally, the essential oil is used in balms and liniments as a combination cooling and heating agent that stimulates both hot and cold nerve endings and increases blood flow to the area.

Oil Name: PeppermintThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: essential oil, mentol menthone, fasmone, tannic (labiatic acid), bitter principle.

Energetics: spicy, bitter, slightly cool

Characteristics: a pale yellow or greenish liquid with a highly penetrating,
grassy-minty camphoraceous odor.

Toxicity: Peppermint can reduce milk flow, so take internally with caution if breastfeeding. Commission E notes that peppermint oil should not be used without professional help in individuals with obstructions of the gallbladder, gallstones, or severe liver disease. The commission states the same caution for peppermint leaf in cases of gallstones. Peppermint and menthol are reported to have caused allergic reactions in some adults and children. It is also warned not to apply peppermint oil to broken skin.


Petitigrain, Bigarade

Citrus aurantium var. amara
[SIT-rus]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves and twigs. An orange ‘leaf and flower’ water absolute is also produced, known as petitgrain sur fleurs The best quality comes from France and is also produced in North Africa and Paraguay

Oil Name: Petitigrain, BigaradeThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: â-ocimen, L-a-pinen, L-camphen, dipenten, L-linalool, L-linalylacetate, phenylalcohol, a-terpinol, nerol, nerylacetate, geranium, nerolidol, farnesol, acetic acid, indol, benzoe acid, anthranil acid, methylester, parafine.

Energetics: cooling / moisturizing / sweet / bitter

Characteristics: the oil is a pale yellow mobile liquid darkening with age with a light, sweetfloral fragrance and terpencey topnote. The absolute is a dark brown or orange viscous liquid with a fresh delicate yet rich, warm sweet-floral fragrance.

Toxicity: Oranges may aggravate arthritis


Scotch Pine

Pinus sylvestris
[PY-nus sil-VESS-triss]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by dry distillation of the needles. Gum turpentine is produced by steam distillation from the oleoresin. An inferior essential oil is also produced by dry distillation from the wood chippings, etc.

Actions: antimicrobial, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiscorbutic, antiseptic (pulmonary, urinary, hepatic), antiviral, bactericidal, balsamic, cholagogue, choleretic, deodorant, diuretic, expectorant, hypertensive, insecticidal, restorative, rubefacient, stimulant (adrenal cortex, circulatory, nervous), vermifuge.

Blends well with: cedarwood, rosemary, tea tree, sage, lavender, juniper, lemon, niaouli, eucalyptus and marjoram.

Oil Name: Scotch PineThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: The leaves of Scots pine contain a volatile oil (consisting mainly of alphapinene, but also including beta-pinene, deltalimonene, and other constituents), tannin, resin, terpenes, pinipricin, lignin, camphene.

Summary: 50-90% monoterpene hydrocarbons: pinene, careen, dipentene, limonene, terpenes, myrcene, ocimene, camphene, sabinene; also bornyl acetate, cineol, citral, chamazulene, among others.

Energetics: bitter, warm

Characteristics: Pine needle oil is a colorless or pale yellow mobile liquid with a strong, dry-balsamic, turpentine-like aroma.

Toxicity: Do not use if prone to allergic skin reactions. Take essential internally only under professional supervision.


Ravintsara

(Ravensare aromatica)Ravintsara madagascarinsis
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Steam distilled leaves

Properties: antibacterial, (strongly) antiviral, immune stimulating, nerve tonic and sedative

Uses: all viral conditions (flu, chronic fatigue, viral hepatitis, herpes, shingles, sore throats, bronchitis), insomnia, muscle fatigue

Blends well with: eucalyptus, thyme, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, pine, cedar, lemon, myrtle, tea tree, Manuka

Oil Name: Ravintsara (Ravensare aromatica)The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: cineole, terpene alcohols, alpha terpineol, alpha and beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene, terpenyl acetate, chavicol

Energetics: cleansing and strengthening

Characteristics: clear with a soft, spicy, herbaceous-camphoraceous scent

Toxicity: none known for normal dosage (in dilution)


Rose Absolute (French)

Rosa centifolia
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Extracted by steam distillation of fresh flowers. About 5,000 pounds of flower petals yield 1 pound of essential oil. First distillation yRose Absolute (French)ields some of the highest, most volatile components that are so light they are easily lost. It is customary to redistill the spent roses a second time; this is usually combined with the first distillation to ground it and prevent it from evaporating, then sold as “first.” The third distillation of the same material produces a somewhat less grand product, and “fourth” distillation is best for blends.

Oil Name: Rose Absolute (French) The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Flower contains essential oil which includes citronellol, geraniol nerol, eugenol, linalool, L-p-menthene, cyanin, gallic acid, beta-carotene.
Fruit: vitamins C, B, E, K; nicotinamide, organic acids, pectin.

Energetics: cooling, moisturizing

Characteristics: A pale yellow or olive yellow liquid with a very rich, deep, sweet-floral, slightly spicy scent. The absolute is a reddishorange or olive viscous liquid with a rich, sweet, spicy-floral, tenacious odor. The oil congeals at about 17F.


Rose Otto

Rosa damascena
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: steam distillation of fresh petals (it requires over a ton of flowers to make one pint [16 fl.oz.] of rose essential oil)

Properties: antidepressant, antispasmodic, astringent, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue, tonic for heart, stomach, liver and uterus, promotes wound healing and scar formation, antiviral, antibacterial, mild laxative, expectorant

Uses: chronic bronchitis, TB, asthma, nervous tension and stress-related problems, insomnia, depression, sexual issues, fatigue, skin problems, sprains and strains, heart palpitations, liver congestion, menstrual and uterine disorders

Blends well with: citrus and floral oils, cedar, chamomile, clary sage, frankincense, petitgrain, sandalwood, vanilla, coriander, lavender, palmarosa, patchouli

Oil Name: Rose OttoThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: citronellol, geraniol, nerol, stearopten, phenyl ethyl alcohol, rhodinol, farnesol, linalool, geranic acid, eugenol, myrcene, and up to 300 trace constituents

Energetics: strengthening, tonifying and cooling

Characteristics: colorless to very pale yellow or pale olive yellow liquid that solidifies (due to wax content) around 60 degrees F with a very rich, mellow, sweet-floral scent with spicy-vanilla undertones

Toxicity: best avoided in pregnancy; otherwise non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing


Rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis chem. cineol
[rose-ma-REE-nus oh-fiss-ih-NAH-liss]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Extracted by steam distillation of the flowering plant. Liquid is clear to light yellow. Fragrance is camphor-like, strong, woody. About 66 pounds of the flowering plant yields 1 pound of essential oil. Because of their slightly different components, the oil from France is more effective for the liver, and the oil from Spain more effective for the heart.

Oil Name: RosemaryThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: essential oils include cineole, borneol, camphene, camphor, linalool, verbenol; flavonoids (diosmin, apigenin, diosmetin, luteolin), rosemarinic acids, tannins, diterpenes (picrosalvin), rosmaricine, bornylacetat, dipenten, eucalyptol, D-a-pinen, camphor, L-a-thujon.

Energetics: warming, dry, pungent, bitter

Characteristics: yang

Toxicity: The borneol, camphor, eucalyptol and pinene in oil of rosemary can be skin irritants. Should be avoided during pregnancy (though there is no real research to substantiate this) as well as in cases of epilepsy and high blood pressure. The cineol(e) chemotype is gentler than the borneol/camphor chemotype.


Rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis chem. borneol/camphor
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Extracted by steam distillation of the flowering plant. Liquid is clear to light yellow. Fragrance is camphor-like, strong, woody. About 66 pounds of the flowering plant yields 1 pound of essential oil. Because of their slightly different components, the oil from France is more effective for the liver, and the oil from Spain more effective for the heart.

Properties: analgesic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cicatriznat, cytophylactic, diaphoretic, emmemnagogue, fungicidal, nervine tonic, paraciticide, rubefacient, stimulant (circulation, adrenal cortex and hepatobiliary) and vulnerary.

Uses: all hair and scalp issues, fliud retention, muscular pain and spasms, poor circulation, rheumatism, menstrual issues, respiratory problems, digestive issues, sluggish liver and gall bladder, immune boosting during illness, headache, mental fatigue, low blood pressure, and stress-related issues.

Blends well with: frankincense, lavender, citronella, oregano, thyme, pine, basil, peppermint, cedar, petitgrain, and spice oils.

Oil Name: RosemaryThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents:essential oils include cineole, borneol, camphene, camphor, linalool, verbenol; flavonoids (diosmin, apigenin, diosmetin, luteolin), rosemarinic acids, tannins, diterpenes (picrosalvin), rosmaricine, bornylacetat, dipenten, eucalyptol, D-a-pinen, camphor, L-a-thujon.

Energetics: warming, dry, pungent, bitter

Characteristics: yang

Toxicity: non-irritating only in 2% or less dilution. Avoid if pregnant, epileptic, and/or hpertensive. Do not use on children less than 12 years old (the cineole cheotype is gentler).


Clary Sage

Salvia sclarea
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by steam distillation from the flowering tops and leaves. A concrete and absolute are also produced by solvent extraction in small quantities.

Properties: anticonvulsive, antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, bactericidal.

Oil Name: Clary SageThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: linalyl acetate, linalol, pinene, myrcene, saponine and phellandrene.

Characteristics: Yang

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-irritant, nonsensitizing. Avoid during pregnancy. Do not use clary sage oil while drinking alcohol, it can induce a narcotic effect and exaggerate drunkenness.


Lavender Sage

Salvia lavandulifolia
[SAL-vee-uh lav-an-dew-lee-FOH-lee-uh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method:
Steam distillation of the leaves

Properties: antiseptic, analgesic, antiviral, expectorant, relieve cough, circulatory tonic

Uses: all respiratory problems, skin issues (acne, eczema, and dermatitis), poor circulation, arthritis, to prevent infections

Blends well with: sage, lavender, marjoram, spike lavender, rosemary, hyssop

Oil Name: Lavender SageThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: cineole, linalool, delta-terpineol, borneol camphor, linalyl acetate, alpha-beta-pinene, myrcene, and many sesquiterpenes

Energetics: stimulating and strengthening

Characteristics: very pale yellow with an herbaceous, lavender, clean, dry, slightly camphoraceous scent

Toxicity: : none known in dilution


Sandalwood, Australian

Santalum spicatum
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: distilled from roots, inner wood, and tree stumps

Properties: anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, astringent, urinary and pulmonary antiseptic, aphrodisiac, sedative, tonic, insecticidal, cell regenerating

Uses: inflammatory conditions, diarrhea, urinary and respiratory infections, skin problems, anxiety, insomnia, nervous tension, stress-related disorders

Blends well with: bergamot, cypress, cedar, geranium, jasmine, rose, vetiver, coriander, frankincense, juniper, patchouli, pine, ylang ylang

Oil Name: Sandalwood, AustralianThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: santalols, santalenes. Out of 70 chemical constituents identified, 4 are monoterpenes and 64 are sesquiterpenes. Four compounds are new to aromatherapy. Western Australian sandalwood contains higher levels of farnesol and alpha-bisabolol than East Indian sandalwood).

Energetics: cooling, grounding and uplifting

Characteristics: slightly pale yellow viscous liquid with a soft, woody, balsamic, leathery scent with a dry-spicy, slightly smoky-resinous note

Toxicity: non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing


Spearmint

Mentha spicata
[MEN-thuh spi-KAH-tuh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the flowering tops.

Blends well with: lavender, lavandin, jasmine, eucalyptus, basil and rosemary and is often used in combination with peppermint.

Oil Name: SpearmintThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: L-carvone, dihydrocarvone, phellandrene, limonene, menthone, menthol, pulegone, cineol, linalool, pinenes, among others.

Characteristics: a pale yellow or olive mobile liquid with a warm, spicy-herbaceous, minty odor.

Actions: anesthetic (local), antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholagogue, decongestant, digestive diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hepatic, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, tonic


Spikenard

Nardostachys jatamansi
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the dried and crushed rhizome and roots.

Blends well with: labdanum, lavender, oakmoss, patchouli, pine needle, vetiver and spice oils.

Actions: anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, bactericidal, deodorant, fungicidal, laxative, sedative, tonic

Oil Name: SpikenardThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: bornyl acetate, isobornyl valerianate, borneol, patchouli alcohol, terpinyl valerianate, terpineol, eugenol and pinenes. A volatile essential oil 0.5% resin, sugar, starch, bitter extractive matter and gum are obtained from the rhizome.The oil contains a ketone, jatamansone which is the same as valeranone (in valerian).It also contains jatamansic acid. Jatamansone semicarbazone is a sesquiterpenic ketone isolated from the rhizomes.
Characteristics: a pale yellow or ambercolored liquid with a heavy, sweet-woody, spicy-animal odor, somewhat similar to valerian oil.

Toxicity: Large doses of jatamansone can cause vomiting and diarrhea.


Black Spruce

Picea mariana
[PY-see-uh mar-ee-AH-nuh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method:
Steam distillation of needles

Properties: hormone-like (possibly stimulating to the thymus; considered to have cortisone-like properties; adrenal tonic), antispasmodic, anti-infective, parasiticide, nerve strengthening, kidney tonic

Uses: general tonic, internal parasites and intestinal catarrh, excessive thyroid, respiratory problems, weakened immune system, depleted adrenals

Blends well with: other conifers, lavender, rosemary, lemon, marjoram

Oil Name: Black SpruceThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: alpha-beta-pinene, camphene, delta-3-carene, l-bornyl acetate, l-alpha phellandrene, sesquiterpenes

Energetics: tonifying and strengthening

Characteristics: clear with an herbaceous, coniferous scent with a mossy undertone

Toxicity: none known for normal usage (in dilution); do not take internally


Hemlock Spruce

Tsuga canadensis
[SOO-guh ka-na-DEN-sis]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Essential oil by steam distillation from the needles and twigs.

Properties: Antipruritic; Astringent; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Skin; Styptic.

Oil Name: Hemlock SpruceThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: Volatile oil (alpha-pinene, borynl acetate, and cadinene), 10-14% tannins, and resin.

Characteristics: A colorless or pale yellow liquid with a pleasing, fresh-balsamic, sweetfruity odor.


Blue Tansy

Tanacetum annuum
[TAN-uh-SEE-tum]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: distillation of the annual tansy plant

Properties: anti-inflammatory, antihistamine, analgesic, reduces blood pressure, strengthens veins, endocrine/hormonal affects

Uses: asthma, emphysema, skin inflammation and allergies, varicose veins, high blood pressure, arthritis

Blends well with: other herbal oils

Oil Name: Blue Tansy. The information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: chamazulene and limonene

Energetics: calming and strengthening

Characteristics: deep indigo blue with a strong penetrating herbal scent with a sweet-toast note

Toxicity: reportedly non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing; use care in presence of endocrine imbalance


Tea Tree

Melaleuca alternifolia
[me-luh-LOO-kuh al-tern-ee-FOH-lee-uh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: Its leaves are collected and water or steam distilled locally.

The oil has served as an antiseptic for many decades, but only recently has it been proven scientifically, that the oil really possesses an outstanding germ killing effect and high penetration power. Tea tree is a traditional Aboriginal remedy. The leaves are crushed, and either inhaled or used in infusions for coughs, colds, and skin infections.

Blends well with: lavandin, lavender, clary sage, rosemary, oakmoss, pine, cananga, geranium, marjoram and spice oils, especially clove and nutmeg.

Oil Name: Tea TreeThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: volatile oil, terpinen-4-ol (40%), gamma-terpinene (24%), alpha-terpinene (10%), cineol (5%). One of the most important constituents is known to be terpinen-4-ol, which is significantly antiseptic and well tolerated by the skin. The oil also contains cineol, which can irritate the skin. The cineol content varies—poor-quality oil has more than 10%, in some cases up to 65%.

Energetics: warm, spicy, aromatic

Characteristics: pale yellowish green or almost water white mobile liquid of a warm spicy, aromatic terpenic odor, reminiscent of nutmeg, cardamom and sweet marjoram, but with a strong emphasis on the terpinene and terpineol notes. The flavor is warm aromatic, somewhat burning, spicy and yet fresh, faintly camphoraceous, slightly bitter.

Toxicity: None known. The oil is non caustic and has no harsh effects on skin, and is nonirritating to most skin types.


Sweet Garden Thyme

Thymus vulgaris
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: distillation of the fresh leaves and flowering tops.

Properties: anti-microbial, antiseptic (pulmonary, intestinal, genitor-urinary) antispasmodic, astringent, bactericidal, antifungal, nervine, tonic (circulatory and immune systems)

Uses: stomach, intestinal and bladder infections, nervous exhaustion, parasites, skin infections, respiratory issues

Blends well with: bergamot, lemon, rosemary, melissa, lavender, marjoram, tolu balsam, pine, cedar, chamomile, juniper, niaouli, red mandarin, tea tree

Oil Name: Sweet Garden ThymeThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: terpene alcohols, especially linalol, and esters, especially linalyl acetate

Energetics: protecting and tonifying

Characteristics: clear with a tinge of pale yellow with a warm, herbaceous, powdery floral scent with a penetrating quality

Toxicity: compared to Red, White and Wild Thymes (the thymol and carvacrol chemotypes) this thyme is much less toxic and non-irritant in dilution. There is the possibility of sensitization. When adequately diluted (2 % or less) safe for use on the skin and with children.


Vetiver

Vetiveria zizanioides
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the roots and rootlets – washed, chopped, dried and soaked. A resinoid is also produced by solvent extraction for perfumery work.
Oil Name: VetiverThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: the essential oil includes at least 29 different compounds including vetiverol, vitivone, terpenes (vetivenes).

Characteristics: a dark brown, olive or amber viscous oil with a deep smoky, earthywoody odor with a sweet persistent undertone. The color and scent can vary according to the source. Angola produces a very pale oil with a dry-woody odor.


Blue Yarrow

Achillea millefolium
[ah-KEY-lee-uh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: essential oil by steam distillation from the dried herb.

Oil Name: Blue YarrowThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: volatile oil with variable content (azulene—up to 51%, borneol, cineole, terpineol, eugenol, trace of thujone, linalool, camphor, sabinene, chamzulene); sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, glycoalkaloid (achilleine), alkaloids (acilleine); polyacetylenes; triterpenes; salicylic acid; coumarins; tannins, sugars.

Energetics: bitter, spicy, neutral

Characteristics: a dark blue (or greenish olive) liquid with a fresh, green, sweetherbaceous, slightly camphoraceous odor. It blends well with cedarwood, pine, chamomile, valerian, vetiver and oakmoss.


Ylang Ylang Complete

Cananga odorata forma genuina
[kan-AN-guh oh-dor-AY-tuh]
Aromatherapy:
Extraction method: by water or steam distillation from the freshly picked flowers. The first distillate is called ylang ylang extra, which is the top grade. There are three further successive distillates, called Grades 1,2 and 3. A complete oil is also produced which represents the total or unfractionated oil but is sometimes constructed by blending ylang ylang 1 and 2 together. An absolute and concrete are also produced by solvent extraction for their long-lasting floral-balsamic effect.

Oil Name: Ylang Ylang CompleteThe information presented here only reflects historical usage of herbs and herbal products and is given for educational purposes only. No statement has been evaluated by the FDA. None of these herbs in any form of product are intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition.

Constituents: methyl benzoate, methyl salicylate, methyl para-cretol, benzyl acetate, eugenol, geraniol, linalol, linalylbenzoate, linalylacetate, cardinen, cresol, a-pinen, caryophyllen, isoengenol, cresylmethylether, safrol, nerol, farnesol and terpenes: pinene, cadinene.

Toxicity: Too much can cause nausea.

Characteristics:The extra is a pale yellow, oily liquid with an intensely sweet, soft, floralbalsamic, slightly spicy scent–a good oil has a creamy rich topnote. The other grades lack the depth and richness of the extra.